Alloys of aluminum sheet plate
Aluminum plate refers to a rectangular plate rolled by aluminum ingots. It is divided into pure aluminum plate, alloy aluminum plate.
- High-purity aluminum sheet (rolled from high-purity aluminum with a content of 99.9 or more)
- Pure aluminum plate (the composition is basically rolled from pure aluminum)
- Alloy aluminum plate (composed of aluminum and auxiliary alloys, usually aluminum-copper, aluminum-manganese, aluminum-silicon, aluminum-magnesium, etc.)
According to the alloy series, it can be divided into
1 series aluminum sheet
Features: Containing more than 99.00% aluminum, good electrical conductivity, good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, low strength, not heat treatable to strengthen.
Applications: Chemical industry and special applications. Chemical equipment (1060), industrial installations and storage containers (1100)
2 series aluminum sheet
Characteristics: Aluminum alloy containing copper as the main combined element. Manganese, magnesium, lead and bismuth are also added for machinability. Disadvantages: serious tendency of intergranular corrosion.
Applications: Aerospace industry (2014 alloy), screws (2011 alloy) and industries with high operating temperatures (2017 alloy).
3 series aluminum plate
Features: Aluminum alloy with manganese as the main alloy element, not heat treatable to strengthen, good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, good plasticity. Disadvantages: low strength, but can be strengthened by cold working hardening, easy to produce coarse grains when annealed.
Applications: Air conditioners, refrigerators, underbody of cars and other shells that need to be rust-proof, seamless tubes for oil guide used in airplanes (3003 alloy), easy-to-open cans (3004 alloy).
4 series aluminum sheet
Features: Silicon based, not a commonly used aluminum alloy. Some of the 4 series can be strengthened by heat treatment, but some of them cannot be heat treated.
Applications: Construction materials, mechanical parts, forging materials, welding materials;
5 series aluminum plate
Features: Magnesium is the main material. Good resistance, good welding performance, good fatigue strength, can not be heat-treated to strengthen, only cold processing to improve the strength.
Applications: In aviation, such as aircraft fuel tanks, ducts, bulletproof vests.
6 series aluminum plate
Features: Magnesium and silicon based. Mg2Si is the main strengthening, medium strength, good corrosion resistance, good welding performance, good process performance (easy extrusion out of the shape) oxidation coloring performance. It is a relatively widely used alloy.
Applications: transportation tools (such as: car luggage rack, doors, windows, body, heat sink, between the box shell)
7 series aluminum sheet
Features: zinc-based, but sometimes a small amount of magnesium and copper are added. One of the super hard aluminum alloys is the one containing zinc, lead, magnesium and copper alloy close to the hardness of steel. The extrusion speed is slower than 6-series alloy, and the welding performance is good.
Applications: In aviation (load-bearing components of aircraft, landing gear), rockets, propellers, airships.
Temper of aluminum sheet plate
The basic condition of aluminum alloy plate is divided into 5 kinds, each is F, O, H, T, W. These 5 kinds of condition means 5 kinds of process treatment and link of aluminum alloy plate, and the characteristics and price of aluminum alloy plate in different condition will have quite a big difference.
F is the free temper, no restriction on the temper of aluminum plate, it is applicable to the products with no special requirements for the process hardening and heat treatment conditions in the forming process, and the mechanical properties of the products in this temper are not specified.
O is the annealed temper, that is, the full soft temper, applicable to the processing of products with lower strength obtained by complete annealing. Annealing temperatures of 400° or more are generally required.
H is the work-hardened temper, followed by a number indicating what kind of work-hardening and the degree of hardness and softness, applicable to products with increased strength through work-hardening, the product can be processed after hardening (or not) to reduce the strength of additional heat treatment. The number following the H is the required hardness parameter.
The meaning of the number following the H temper
- The first number after H is 1, which is a purely work-hardened temper.
- The first digit of H temper is 2, which is incomplete annealing.
- The first digit of the H temper is 3, which is a work-hardening stabilized treatment.
- The first digit of H heel is 4, which is work-hardened paint treatment.
Hxx The second digit on the heel of the H. The larger the number, the higher the hardness.
- Hx1 1/8 hardness
- Hx2 2/8 hardness
- Hx3 3/8 hardness
- Hx4 4/8 hardness
- Hx5 5/8 hardness
- Hx6 6/8 hardness
- Hx7 7/8 hardness
- Hx8 8/8 hardness
- Hx9 extra hard
Hxxx H followed by the third digit, is a special temper
- Hxx1 The lowest hardness, not as hard as H11
- Hxx2 processing and molding, no special performance requirements
- Hxx3 is generally a magnesium (Mg) content is relatively high (Mg ≥ 4%) alloy, such as the 5 series.
W solid solution heat treatment temper, an unstable temper, only for the solution heat treatment, natural aging of the alloy at room temperature, the temper code only indicates that the product is in the natural aging stage.
T heat treatment temper (different from F, O, and H tempers ) applies to products stabilized after heat treatment, with or without work hardening. The numbers followed by T are the different tempers of processing.
The meaning of the temper of T-temper and the process
T0 solid solution treatment + natural aging + cold deformation
- Solid solution treatment: solid – heating – hot rolling (plate rolling, bar rolling, etc.)
- Cold deformation: straightening and the like
T1 hot work + natural aging
T2 hot work + cold deformation + natural aging
T3 solid solution treatment + cold deformation + natural aging
T4 solid solution treatment + natural aging
T5 Hot working + artificial aging
T6 Solid solution treatment + artificial aging
T7 solid solution treatment + over-aging
Note: Over-aging is a kind of artificial aging, more than the temperature of insulation, more than the time of insulation, the performance changes, it is necessary to re-temperature re-aging, the cost becomes high.
The degree of over-aging is divided into
- over-aging 1 temper T73
- Over-aging 2 temper T74
- Over-aging3 temper T76
T8 Solid solution treatment + cold deformation + artificial aging
T9 Solid solution treatment + artificial aging + cold deformation
T10 Hot working + cold deformation + artificial aging
1/3/5 series alloys without heat treatment process, all without T-temper. f-temper and H112 in the national standard mechanical properties are not required. (Mechanical properties include strength, hardness, yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, etc.)
One more process is added, and the cost becomes higher. Cold deformation needs to be done manually, and the labor cost becomes invisible higher.
The temperature of manual aging is high. Natural aging is room temperature. The annealing temperature needs to be 400° or higher. Quenching temperature is above 100°.
Applications of aluminum sheet plate
- Illumination and lighting
- Solar reflection sheet
- Architectural appearance
- Interior decoration: ceiling, wall, etc.
- Furniture, cabinets
- Signs, inscriptions, Brands, bags and bags
- Car interior and exterior decoration
- Interior decorations: such as photo frames
- Household appliances: refrigerators, microwave ovens, audio equipment, etc.
- Aerospace and military aspects, such as China’s large aircraft manufacturing, Shenzhou spacecraft series, satellites, etc. .
- Mechanical parts processing
- Mold manufacturing
- Chemical / insulation pipe coating.
- High-quality ship board